Lecturer(s)


Vestfálová Magda, Ing. Ph.D.

Dančová Petra, doc. Ing. Ph.D.

Müller Miloš, Ing. Ph.D.

Novotný Petr, Ing. CSc.

Šimurda David, Ing. Ph.D.

Course content

Lectures: 1. Development and classification of the scientific field, historical introduction, literature. Models and properties of fluids, state quantities. 2. Hydrostatics  Euler's equation of hydrostatics, derivation of the pressure level. Basic applications of Euler's theorem of hydrostatics in the gravitational field. Force effect on plane and curved walls, component method and replacement plane method. 3. Relative balance of fluids, rectilinear motion uniformly accelerated, rotation around vertical and horizontal axis. 4. Hydrodynamics  terminology of fluid kinematics, Lagrange's and Euler's method. Basic flow equations of an ideal incompressible fluid, continuity equation, Euler's hydrodynamic equation, momentum change theorem (impulse theorem), energy equation and Bernoulli's equation (energy conservation law). 5. Application and practical use of Bernoulli's equation, velocity measurement (Pitot  piezometric tube, PrandtlPitot tube), flow measurement (orifice, nozzle, Venturi tube), diffusers and confusors. Discharge of liquids through holes, nozzles, discharge through a large hole, method of corrections, overflows. Discharge from the vessel through a connected tube, nonstationary discharge. 6. Dynamic effects of fluid flow. Viscous fluid flow, boundary layers and their thickness, NavierStokes equation, shear regions. Laminar and turbulent flow  gap, cylindrical tube, runoff along the wall, laminar flood flow. 7. Turbulent flow  measurement of fluctuation components (principles), turbulence intensity, Reynolds stress. Bernoulli's equation with energy dissipation. Turbulent velocity profiles, power and logrithmic law, starting length. 8. Hydraulic losses  Nikuradze and Moody diagram. Weisbach's relation, local losses, equivalent length, derivation of local losses: sudden expansion of flow (Bord's loss), sudden narrowing of flow, diffuser, confusor, change of flow direction. Hydraulic calculation of pipeline networks: serial and parallel shifting. Circular network with abstraction. 9. Flow of gases and vapors  categorization of flow, energy equation, compressibility of fluids, speed of sound, Mach number, Mach angle. Gas expansion as it flows through the nozzle and hole. The outflow into a vacuum, the shape of the nozzle at the outflow into a vacuum, the maximum velocity and the stagnation temperature of the flowing gas. 10. Critical quantities of the state, critical pressure ratio, critical velocity. Dependence of critical quantities on stagnation parameters. 11. Design of expansion nozzle for isentropic critical, supercritical and subcritical pressure drop, numerical solution for gases and graphic  numerical for vapors. 12. Polytropic expansion of gases and vapors, thermodynamic efficiency of the nozzle. Influence of back pressure at the nozzle and Laval nozzle. Flow in the nozzle of a given shape. 13. Shock waves: straight, oblique. Shock wave thickness. Change of state quantities during the passage of a shock wave. 14. The flow over the bodies, drag of bodies (friction and pressure). Kármán's series of vortices. Importance of aerodynamic drag at automobiles. Buoyancy, induced resistance. Exercises: 1. Properties of fluids. Use of tables and diagrams. Hydrostatic pressure. 2. Forces on plane walls. 3. Forces on curved walls. 4. Relative equilibrium. 5. Ideal fluid flow. 6. Outflow from the vessels. 7. Dynamic effects of fluid flow. 8.  10. 1D viscous fluid flow. 11. Isoentropic flow  nozzle design. 12. Flow of gases and vapors through nozzles and diffusers. 13. 14. Flow of gases and vapors through a tube of variable crosssection.

Learning activities and teaching methods

Monological explanation (lecture, presentation,briefing), Lecture, Practicum
 Class attendance
 56 hours per semester

Learning outcomes

The basic properties of liquids, the hydrostatics, the relativ equilibrium, the hydrodynamics of viscous and inviscid incompressible fluid, the laminar and turbulent flow, the hydraulic losses, the flow of gases and steam, the dynamics effects of the fluid stream, the devices to transport and compression of fluid.
Basic knowledge of the flow of incompressible and compressible fluids.

Prerequisites

It advances in the Mathematics, Physics, Thermodynamics and heat transfer.

Assessment methods and criteria

Combined examination
Credit: maximum 20% excused absence with substitute processing of the missing substance, successful completion of tests. Exam: demonstration of knowledge of the discussed topics, the condition for participation in the exam is to obtain a credit.

Recommended literature


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