Course: Fluid Mechanics

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Course title Fluid Mechanics
Course code KEZ/MT
Organizational form of instruction Lecture + Lesson
Level of course Bachelor
Year of study not specified
Semester Winter
Number of ECTS credits 5
Language of instruction Czech, English
Status of course Compulsory
Form of instruction Face-to-face
Work placements Course does not contain work placement
Recommended optional programme components None
Course availability The course is available to visiting students
Lecturer(s)
  • Vestfálová Magda, Ing. Ph.D.
  • Dančová Petra, doc. Ing. Ph.D.
  • Müller Miloš, Ing. Ph.D.
  • Novotný Petr, Ing. CSc.
  • Šimurda David, Ing. Ph.D.
Course content
Lectures: 1. Development and classification of the scientific field, historical introduction, literature. Models and properties of fluids, state quantities. 2. Hydrostatics - Euler's equation of hydrostatics, derivation of the pressure level. Basic applications of Euler's theorem of hydrostatics in the gravitational field. Force effect on plane and curved walls, component method and replacement plane method. 3. Relative balance of fluids, rectilinear motion uniformly accelerated, rotation around vertical and horizontal axis. 4. Hydrodynamics - terminology of fluid kinematics, Lagrange's and Euler's method. Basic flow equations of an ideal incompressible fluid, continuity equation, Euler's hydrodynamic equation, momentum change theorem (impulse theorem), energy equation and Bernoulli's equation (energy conservation law). 5. Application and practical use of Bernoulli's equation, velocity measurement (Pitot - piezometric tube, Prandtl-Pitot tube), flow measurement (orifice, nozzle, Venturi tube), diffusers and confusors. Discharge of liquids through holes, nozzles, discharge through a large hole, method of corrections, overflows. Discharge from the vessel through a connected tube, non-stationary discharge. 6. Dynamic effects of fluid flow. Viscous fluid flow, boundary layers and their thickness, Navier-Stokes equation, shear regions. Laminar and turbulent flow - gap, cylindrical tube, run-off along the wall, laminar flood flow. 7. Turbulent flow - measurement of fluctuation components (principles), turbulence intensity, Reynolds stress. Bernoulli's equation with energy dissipation. Turbulent velocity profiles, power and logrithmic law, starting length. 8. Hydraulic losses - Nikuradze and Moody diagram. Weisbach's relation, local losses, equivalent length, derivation of local losses: sudden expansion of flow (Bord's loss), sudden narrowing of flow, diffuser, confusor, change of flow direction. Hydraulic calculation of pipeline networks: serial and parallel shifting. Circular network with abstraction. 9. Flow of gases and vapors - categorization of flow, energy equation, compressibility of fluids, speed of sound, Mach number, Mach angle. Gas expansion as it flows through the nozzle and hole. The outflow into a vacuum, the shape of the nozzle at the outflow into a vacuum, the maximum velocity and the stagnation temperature of the flowing gas. 10. Critical quantities of the state, critical pressure ratio, critical velocity. Dependence of critical quantities on stagnation parameters. 11. Design of expansion nozzle for isentropic critical, supercritical and subcritical pressure drop, numerical solution for gases and graphic - numerical for vapors. 12. Polytropic expansion of gases and vapors, thermodynamic efficiency of the nozzle. Influence of back pressure at the nozzle and Laval nozzle. Flow in the nozzle of a given shape. 13. Shock waves: straight, oblique. Shock wave thickness. Change of state quantities during the passage of a shock wave. 14. The flow over the bodies, drag of bodies (friction and pressure). Kármán's series of vortices. Importance of aerodynamic drag at automobiles. Buoyancy, induced resistance. Exercises: 1. Properties of fluids. Use of tables and diagrams. Hydrostatic pressure. 2. Forces on plane walls. 3. Forces on curved walls. 4. Relative equilibrium. 5. Ideal fluid flow. 6. Outflow from the vessels. 7. Dynamic effects of fluid flow. 8. - 10. 1D viscous fluid flow. 11. Isoentropic flow - nozzle design. 12. Flow of gases and vapors through nozzles and diffusers. 13. -14. Flow of gases and vapors through a tube of variable cross-section.

Learning activities and teaching methods
Monological explanation (lecture, presentation,briefing), Lecture, Practicum
  • Class attendance - 56 hours per semester
Learning outcomes
The basic properties of liquids, the hydrostatics, the relativ equilibrium, the hydrodynamics of viscous and inviscid incompressible fluid, the laminar and turbulent flow, the hydraulic losses, the flow of gases and steam, the dynamics effects of the fluid stream, the devices to transport and compression of fluid.
Basic knowledge of the flow of incompressible and compressible fluids.
Prerequisites
It advances in the Mathematics, Physics, Thermodynamics and heat transfer.

Assessment methods and criteria
Combined examination

Credit: maximum 20% excused absence with substitute processing of the missing substance, successful completion of tests. Exam: demonstration of knowledge of the discussed topics, the condition for participation in the exam is to obtain a credit.
Recommended literature
  • Adamec, J., Lísal, M., Varádiová, B.:. Mechanika tekutin, sbírka příkladů. Praha, 1996.
  • Drábková Sylva a kol. Mechanika tekutin - učební texty. Ostrava, 2007. ISBN 978-80-248-1508-4.
  • DVOŘÁK, V. Mechanika tekutin I Hydrodynamika. 1. vyd. Liberec. TUL. 2015. ISBN 978-80-7494-234-1.
  • DVOŘÁK, V. Mechanika tekutin I Hydrostatika. 1. vyd. Liberec. TUL. 2015. ISBN 978-80-7494-233-4.
  • Dvořák V. Úvod do proudění stlačitelných tekutin, TU v Liberci, 2009, ISBN 978-80-7372-458-0..
  • FOX, Robert W. a Alan T. MCDONALD. Introduction to fluid mechanics. Fourth edition.. New York: John Wiley, 1992. ISBN 0-471-54852-9.
  • GRANGER, Robert Alan. Fluid mechanics. New York: Dover, 1995. ISBN 0-486-68356-7.
  • Ježek, J., Varádiová, B., Adamec, J.:. Mechanika tekutin. Praha, 1997.
  • Ježek, J., Varádiová,:. Mechanika tekutin pro 5-leté obory. Praha, 1988.
  • Noskievič, a kol.:. Mechanika tekutin. Praha, 1987.
  • NOSKIEVIČ, J a kol.:. Mechanika tekutin. Praha, 1987.
  • Tesař, V.:. Mechanika tekutin pro 4-leté studijní obory. Praha, 1990.


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